CCTV Ground Loop Isolator
CCTV Ground loop isolator
High definition TVi/AHD/VCI and 960H Video CCTV ground loop isolator some time called hum bug, is passive devices which reduce ground loop interference with CCTV signals and easily installed in new or existing CCTV systems. It is useful where a video signal is transmitted via cable between points having different ground potentials ( as with 3 phase mains). Built-in transient voltage suppressors for surge voltage protection.” What is Ground Loop? A ground loop is an electrical problem that happens when an AC current interferes with the ground reference level of the video signal. It occurs on the conductive path formed by the shield of the video cable and the chassis of the video equipment. A loop results from the difference between the voltage potential of the shield at one end of the cable, versus the voltage potential of the shield at the other end. The electrical level of the shield is usually 0 volts. When a ground loop is present, this level fluctuates above and below 0 volts. The greater the difference, the more severe the distortion or tearing. If the potential is too great it can destroy the equipment. What to look for: Slight distortion of the picture Hum bar or bars Ground loops are an after-the-fact type of problem in which the end-user blames the installer, the installer blames the manufacturer, and
Using ground loop isolator
A ground loop is an electrical problem that happens when an AC current interferes with the ground reference level of the video signal. It occurs on the conductive path formed by the shield of the video cable and the chassis of the video equipment. A loop results from the difference between the voltage potential of the shield at one end of the cable, versus the voltage potential of the shield at the other end. The electrical level of the shield is usually 0 volts. When a ground loop is present, this level fluctuates above and below 0 volts. The greater the difference, the more severe the distortion or tearing. If the potential is too great it can destroy the equipment. What to look for: Slight distortion of the picture Hum bar or bars Ground loops are an after-the-fact type of problem in which the end-user blames the installer, the installer blames the manufacturer, and actually, nobody is at fault. Neither the manufacturer nor the installer can predict where a loop will occur. Only after the system is installed can it be determined if a problem will exist.
Ground loop problems can be corrected. It is important for both the dealer and the end user to be aware that this problem can occur. A ground loop problem may occur at several points in the system, and each occurrence of the problem must be corrected individually. Loops can occur between a camera and monitor, from a camera to a switcher or one of many other possibilities. Not all ground loops show up as picture disturbances. Erratic or strange behaviour of other devices can be traced to grounding problems. Remember, wires or connections labelled “common” or “neutral” are not mechanical ground connections even though they may be grounded within the equipment.
Each should be treated as a separate wire and not allowed to touch the ground or each other. Many people will resort to shortcuts and try to remove the earth ground (which is the middle prong on a 3-prong electrical plug) from the camera or the associated equipment. Not only is this a very hazardous thing to do, it is also a violation of U.L. laws. When the earth ground is removed, a voltage can appear on the camera chassis. The camera will have what is called a “hot chassis” that can send 60 to 70 volts of electricity through anyone who touches it, which is enough to knock anyone off their feet. Where to Install the Ground Loop Isolator?
Video Ground Loop Isolator should be installed at the CCTV Camera end by connecting the BNC Male connector of the Isolator to the camera and the BNC Male connector of the coaxial cable to the BNC Female connector on the Isolator. In a multi-camera installation, it is recommended that a Video Ground Loop Isolator be installed for each camera.
CCTV VIDEO GROUND LOOP PROBLEM SOLVING
This article will discuss video ground loop problems in CCTV installations. The cause and how it affects picture quality with solutions to eliminate the problem. When Video Ground Loop problems or 60 cycle Bars occur, they are easy to see on a video monitor. They look like a horizontal band or bar across the video monitor that slowly moves up the video screen. These bars can be barely noticeable or can be so bad that the video monitor loses lock and breaks up the picture. If the video camera is Line-Locked to the 60 cycles main power, the bars may stand still in the picture, but they still obscure picture definition and create customer complaints. The source of the 60 cycle bar originates from the power industries use of local grounds to balance their power grid. Everywhere 60 cycle power is used, a local ground is attached to the power grid to return all unbalanced current flow to ground. As an example, you will notice that every main power breaker box will have a ground wire or conduit going to a ground rod or similar device connected to an earth ground. Every correctly installed power outlet will have a connection to this ground.
Not all grounds are created equal. In fact, the earth ground in one building is most likely to have a different voltage potential relative to any other building, even grounds inside the same building will have different voltages between them, based on the uneven current flow of the power load. Here is how the 60 cycle bar gets into your video picture. If you connect a coaxial cable to a monitor or other equipment that plugs into the 60 cycles main power and the other end of the coaxial cable becomes grounded locally for any reason a Ground Loop is created. Any difference in the 60 cycle voltage between these two ground points will create a current flow in the shield of the coax that induces the 60 cycle AC voltage into your video signal. It is easy to measure these differential voltages, simply disconnect the video cables at the monitor point and using your voltmeter on AC volts, measure between any two shields of the incoming video cables, you will be amazed at the difference. The solution is to never connect both ends of a video cable to local grounds. Any cable can be grounded at one end without inducing the ground loop current.
When you run coax cable from one building to another, it is acceptable to install through connection points, but do not allow the shields to come into contact with one another or the local ground. A coaxial connector lying in a cable tray or conduit box can accidentally contact the ground, don’t let this happen. Use tape on the connector to prevent accidental grounding. Also, try not to attach the camera to any structure that is likely to be grounded. Remember that the camera is already grounded at the opposite end of the coaxial cable by the monitor equipment. At the monitor station, you may have many pieces of equipment connected together, like a (Quad, Tape Recorder, Monitor) all of which plug into the main 60 cycle power. This will not present a problem if you plug all of the equipment into the same power line at the monitor point, making sure that all the equipment shares the same ground point at the monitor station. Also try to keep the video cables between equipment, (the service loops) as short as possible. If you already have an installation that has 60 cycle bars, there are some steps you can take to solve the problem.
If coaxial cable shields are connected together anywhere in the system, separate them if possible. Similarly, remove all but one ground connection on each coaxial cable if possible; the ground is usually at the monitor end of the coaxial cable because the monitor equipment plugs into the 60 cycles main power supply which is grounded. Sometimes a ground loop problem can be reduced by reversing the AC plug on the power transformer used to power the camera or reverse the 24 VAC power connections to the camera. This technique will not work on DC powered cameras. If the problem still persists, video isolation transformers can be installed at one end of the coaxial cable to block the shield current flow and eliminate the 60 cycle bars. These transformers must be installed at the coaxial cable that is originating the 60 cycle bar problem. Isolation transformers only work when they can block the current flow in the shield. Once 60 cycle bars become part of the video signal, no economical downstream solution will remove the bars. Use a portable monitor to find the origin of the ground loop problem, start at the camera and move down the coaxial cable until you see the bars appear on the portable monitor. This then is the coaxial cable with the current in the shield. Clear the ground connection or install an isolation transformer at this point. The type of AC power transformers you use to power your camera can contribute to Ground Loop problems. A ground can be introduced to your camera “Capacitive” through the power transformer windings depending on the type and construction technique used to build the AC transformer. Some transformers are built by winding a primary (the 110 VAC side) on a metal core, then simply winding the secondary coil (24VAC) directly over the primary coil. This puts the primary and the secondary indirect capacitive contact. This type can cause Ground Loop problems. Other manufacturers build their AC transformers with a split bobbin where each winding is separately mounted on the metal core. The separation of the primary and secondary coils is greatly increased, reducing the capacitive coupling and removing the unwanted second ground in your system. This type of transformer usually does not cost any more, and may prevent the 60 cycle ground loop from occurring. It would help if you determine which transformers are built to minimize capacitive coupling between windings and purchase that type only. With an understanding of Ground Loop problems and the use of good single ended grounding techniques, you should be able to keep the 60 cycle bars out of your CCTV installations.